Tuesday, 28 July 2015



Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands. Historically, the goals have been to weaken and knock down the opponent.
Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds. The result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, resigns by throwing in a towel, or is pronounced the winner or loser based on the judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, the fight is considered a draw.
While people have fought in hand-to-hand combat since before the dawn of history, the origin of boxing as an organized sport may be its acceptance by the ancient Greeks as an Olympic game in BC 688. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights, largely in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century, again initially in Great Britain and later in the United States and rest of world.

Tuesday, 5 November 2013

Doping In Sports

The use of banned performance-enhancing drugs in sports is commonly referred to as doping, particularly by the organizations that regulate sporting competitions. The use of drugs to enhance performance is considered unethical by most international sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee, although ethicists have argued that it is not different from the use of new materials in the construction of suits and sporting equipment, which can also aid performance and give competitors an unfair advantage. The reasons for the ban are mainly the health risks of performance-enhancing drugs, the equality of opportunity for athletes, and the exemplary effect of drug-free sport for the public. Anti-doping authorities state that using performance-enhancing drugs goes against the "spirit of sport".

Wednesday, 15 February 2012

Rules of Kabaddi

The game of Kabaddi shall be governed and played under the following rules:

1) Ground
Ground shall be level and soft/Mat surface

2) Play Field Measurements
a) Men and Junior Boys               13 X 10 Meters (as shown in the diagram).
MEN                                       Below 80 Kg Weight
JUNIOR                                 Boys: Age 20 years & below (last day of the year) and below 65 Kg weight
b) Women and Junior Girls          12 X 8 Meters (as shown in the diagram).
WOMEN                                Below 70 Kg Weight
JUNIOR GIRLS                    Age 20 years & below (last day of the year) and below 60 Kg Weight.
c) Sub-Junior Boys and Girls      11 X 8 Meters (as shown in the diagram).
SUB-JUNIOR BOYS           Age 16 years & below (last day of the year) and below             50 Kg weight.
SUB-JUNIOR GIRLS          Age 16 years & below (last day of the year) and below              50 Kg weight.

3) Play Field The play field means that portion of the ground, which measures 13 meter by 8 meter (ABCD) for Men & Junior Boys and 12 meters by 6 meter for Women, Junior Girls and 11meter by 6 meter in case of Sub-Junior Boys & Sub-Junior Girls before struggle.

4) Sitting Block The sitting block shall be at a distance of 2 meter from the end lines. It shall be a rectangle of 1 meter by 8 meter in case of Men & Junior Boys and 1 meter by 6 meter in case of Women, Junior Girls, Sub-Junior Boys and Sub-Junior Girls.

5) Boundary The lines on the four sides of the play field are known as the boundaries (AB, BC, CD and DA). All lines shall be of 3 to 5 cm width and form the part of the play field.
Note: It is necessary to have 4-meter clear space outside the boundaries.

6) Lobbies The strips on both the sides of the playfield measuring one meter in width are known as the Lobbies. When the lobbies, as per rule 4 under ‘Rules of Play’ are included in the playfield, the boundaries of the play-field are extended up to the four lines, which enclose the play-field including the lobbies.
7) Mid Line The line that divides the play field into two halves is known as the mid-line.

8) Court Each half of the play field divided by the mid line is known as the Court.

9) Baulk Line Each of the lines in court parallel to the midline is known as baulk line. The distance of the baulk line from the mid line shall be 3.75 meter in case of Men and Junior Boys and 3 meter in case of Women, Junior Girls, Sub-Junior Boys and Girls.

10) Bonus Line The line parallel to Baulk line towards end line is known as Bonus line. The distance between Bonus line and Baulk line shall be 1 meter

Note: Raider is said to have crossed the Bonus line when he comes into contact with the ground between the End line and Bonus line. At the same time any part of his body should not have contact with the ground between the mid line and Bonus line.

11) Cant The repeated, without break; at a stretch and clear aloud sounding of the approved word “KABADDI” within the course of one respiration shall be called ‘Cant’.

12) Raider One who enters into the court of the opponent with the cant is known as a ‘RAIDER’. The raider must begin his cant before he touches the opponent’s court.

13) Anti or Anti-Raider Every player in whose court the raid is being made shall be called Anti or Anti Raider.

14) Loosing the Cant To stop the repeated and clear aloud sounding of the word KABADDI’ or take in a breath during cant by the raider is known as loosing the cant. A cant must be continued within one and the same respiration.

15) To put out an anti If a raider touches an anti with out the breach of rules of play or if any part of the body of an anti touches any part of the body of the raider and then the raider touches his court with the cant, the anti is said to be put out.

16) To Hold a Raider If the anti or antis hold the raider without breach of rules of play and keep the raider in their court and do not allow him to reach his court until he looses his cant or the Referee/Umpire blows the whistle, is known as holding the raider.

17) To reach court safely If the raider touches his court with any part of the body through the midline with out breach of rules with cant, he is said to have reached his court safely and turn of raid is over.

18) Touch If the raider touches the anti or antis by any part of his body or even the clothing, shoes or any other outfit, it is called a touch.

19) Struggle When the anti or antis come into contact with the raider, it is called struggle. After touch or struggle the play field includes the lobbies.

20) Raid When the raider enters the court of opponent with cant, it is known as Raid.

21) Successful Raid When the raider crosses the Baulk line of the defending team at least once during the course of a raid and reaches his court with cant, it is known as Successful Raid.


1) Team
Each team shall consist of minimum 10 and maximum 12 Players. 7 Players shall take the ground at a time and the remaining players are substitutes.

2) Duration of the match
The duration of the time of the match shall be two halves of 20 minutes in case of Men & Junior Boys with 5 Minutes interval. In the case of Women, Junior Girls, Sub-Junior Boys & Girls two halves of 15 Minutes with 5 minutes interval. The teams will change court after interval. The number of players for each team at the start of second half shall remain the same as it was at the end of first half.
NOTE: The last raid of each half of the match shall be allowed to be completed even after completion of the scheduled time as mentioned above.

3) System of scoring
Each team shall score one point for every opponent out or put out. The side, which scores a LONA, shall score two extra points. The out and revival rule will be applicable.

4) Time Out
a) Each Team shall be allowed to take Two “Time Outs” of 30 Seconds each in each half; such time out shall be called for by the Captain, Coach or any playing member of the team with the permission of referee. The time out time shall be added to match time.
b) During the time out the teams shall not leave the ground, any violation in this; a technical point shall be awarded to the opponent team.
c) Official Time out can be called for by the Referee Umpire in the event of any injury to a player, interruption by outsiders, re-lining of the ground or any such unforeseen circumstances. Such time out time will be added to the match time.

5) Substitution
a)            Five Reserve Players can be substituted with the permission of Referee
during time out or interval.
b)           Substituted Players can be re-substituted.
c)            If any player is suspended or disqualified from the match, no substitution is allowed for that particular player. The team will play with less number of players
d)           No substitution is allowed during the official time out.
e)            Substitution is not allowed for out players.

6) Bonus Point
a)         One point shall be awarded to the raider when he crosses the bonus line. If, the raider after crossing the bonus line is caught, the opponent team will also be awarded one point.
b)        The Bonus line will be applicable when there are minimum 6 players in the court; the Referee/Umpire shall award the bonus point after completion of such raid by showing thumb upwards towards the side which scores.
c)         If the raider while crossing the bonus line is caught then a point will be awarded to the defending team & No Bonus point shall be given.
d)        The raider after crossing the bonus line if he puts out one or more antis, he will get the number of points scored in addition to the bonus point for crossing the bonus line.
e)         The raider has to cross the bonus line to score the bonus point before touching the anti / antis or before he is caught by the anti/antis. The raider will not be awarded bonus point if he crosses the bonus line after a touch/struggle.
f)          There shall be no revival for bonus point.
g)        If player/players are suspended temporarily or disqualified from the match, then the team will play with less number of players. Such players shall be counted to award Bonus point
7) Result     The team, which scores the highest number of points at the end of the match, shall be declared the winner. 

8) Tie in Knock Out   If there is a tie in the Knock out matches the match will be decided on the following basis:
1. Both the teams should field 7 Players in the Court.
2. Both teams should play the game on the baulk line.
3. The baulk line shall be treated, as Baulk Line Cum Bonus Line and all the Bonus point rules shall be followed.
4. If the raider succeeds in crossing the baulk line cum bonus line he will get one point.
          5. After crossing the Baulk line cum Bonus line, if the raider puts out one or more antis,  he will get the number of points scored in addition to the one point scored by crossing the baulk line cum bonus line.
6. The out or revival rule shall not be applicable, only points scored will be counted.
7. Both the teams should give the names of the five different Raiders with their Chest Numbers as per their order of raid to the referee. Substitution of players shall not be allowed from the fielded seven Players.
8. Each team shall be given 5 Raids by different raiders to raid alternately.
9. In case any raider in the given list of 5 raiders is injured before his chance of raid, in such cases, one of the remaining 2 players out of the seven in the field can do the raid.
10. The side, which raids first at the beginning of the match, shall be allowed to raid first
11. Even after 5 Raids, if there is a tie, the game will be decided as per the Golden Raid Rule.
N.B: If player/players are suspended temporarily or disqualified during the Tiebreaker, the team will play with less number of players. Such players shall be counted to award Bonus point.
v  Golden Raid
·               Even after 5-5 raids, if there is a tie, a fresh toss will be taken and the team that wins the toss shall have the chance to raid i.e. “GOLDEN RAID”
·               If there is tie even after the Golden Raid then a chance will be given to the opponent team for the Golden Raid.
·               In the Golden Raid the team which scores the leading point shall be declared as Winner.

 9) League System
In the League System the team that wins the match will score two league points and the looser will score zero point. In case of Tie both the sides will score one league point each.
Tie in league points:
If there is a tie in the league points scored in the league system, the winner and runner of the pool will be decided on the basis of “For and Against Points” scored by using the following formula:
a) The team which scores less than 25% of the league points will not be considered for  the “For and Against Points” formula.
        b) To decide the tie, the “For and Against points” of the concerned teams against the teams which scored 25% or more of the league points will be considered and the difference calculated.
c) The team which is scoring highest score difference of “For and Against’ will be declared pool winner.
d) Even after considering “For and against” points, if there is a tie, the total points “SCORED FOR” only will be counted.
e) Even after this if there is a tie, the result of the match played between the teams is to be considered.
f) Even after this if there is a tie, the highest number of points scored without applying 25% rule shall be considered.
g) Even after this if there is a tie, the Winner and Runner will be decided on                          toss.

Note: Walkover is given to the opponent team by the referee due to late reporting, non-reporting or due to any other technical issues of the defaulting team. Such team will be scratched from the competition and the score of such teams shall not be considered to decide the tie. The same rule shall be applicable to teams which concede the match also.

10)     If owing to failure of light, heavy rains or any other unforeseen circumstances, a match could not be completed in the same session; such a match shall be replayed in the next session. In case of replay, the players need not be the same for fielding a team.

11)      In case of temporary suspension of the match, change of court/ground / play field such match shall be continued with the same score and remaining time in the same session. During the temporary suspension the players shall not leave their respective courts without the permission of the referee. If a team violates this rule a technical point will be awarded to the opponent team.

12)      Nails of the players must be closely clipped and no ornaments of any sort shall be allowed. 

13)      All players must have distinct numbers on their T-shirt of at least 4 Inches thickness in front and 6 inches thickness at the back. The team should follow the dress code compulsorily.

14)      Application of oils or any other soft substances to the body shall not be allowed
15)      Shoes are compulsory in case the match is played on the mat surface.


1)     The officials shall be One Referee, Two Umpires, One Scorer and Two Assistant Scorers.

2)     The decision of the umpires on the field shall be final generally but in special circumstances, the referee may give the decision in the best interest of the game and also if there is a disagreement between two umpires.

3) Gross violations & Foul
The referee and the umpires shall have the power to warn, declare point against, temporarily suspend or to disqualify any player or team from the match who is committing any of the following violations or Foul.
a) Persistently addressing the officials in regard to the decision.
b) Make derogatory remarks about the officials & action leading to influencing their decision.
c) Point out finger by the raider or anti for demanding decision of the umpire.
d) Stifle a raider by shutting his mouth or throat by any way.
e) Violent tackling leading to injuries to the body.
f) Takes more than 5 Seconds to start the raid.
g) Hold the raider with the help of scissors operated by legs.
h) Coaching from out side by the coaches and the players.
i) Preventing the raider to take his turn of raid

4)      The referee and the umpire can use the following cards to warn, temporarily suspend, suspend from the match or debar from the tournament a player coach/manager/ team.
a) Green Card          Warning       If green card is shown to a player/ coach/ manager / team twice, then the next card shall be directly Yellow Card.
b) Yellow Card        Temporary Suspension for 2 Minutes. If yellow card is shown to player/ coach/ manager/team twice, then the next card shall be directly Red Card.
The two minutes suspension of players shall commence from the time the player is on court only
If the out player is suspended for two minutes than the suspension will begin after revival
            Teams will not be allowed to revive the next out player in place of the suspended player revival
 c) Red Card: Suspension from the match or debarred from the Tournament.

5)      Duties of the Referee:
            The Referee shall:
            1)         Take the toss
            2)         Announce the score of each side before the last 5 minutes is declared
3)         Supervise in general, the conduct of the whole match.
4)         Record the time, start and end the game
5)         Announce the substitution & replacement of players.
6)         Announce the time of each minute of the last 5 minutes of the Second half.

6)      Duties of the Umpire:
The umpires shall conduct the match and give decisions according to the rules of play and matches till the game is ended.

7)      Duties of the Scorer:
a)         Fill in the score sheet & announce the score with the permission of the                             referee at the end of each half and the result at the end of the match.
b)        Make a note of the team winning the toss at the start of the game.
c)         All the points scored by all the players of the team will be recorded in running score on their respective side on the score sheet diagonally ( / )
d)        Points scored for LONA should be scratched horizontally  ( — )
e)        Bonus point shall be shown in the score sheet by triangle (Δ) 
f)         The team scoring the first leading point shall be shown in the running score by square
g)        Technical point awarded by the referee or umpire should be encircled (O) in the running score.
h)        Time out by the teams be indicated by (“T”) against the team concerned
i)          Keep a note of the timing in the score sheet at the beginning & at the end of each half, time out taken by the teams & officials and record the sub situations made.
j)                   Complete the score sheet in all respects and get it duly signed by the umpires and referee.

8) Duties of the Assistant Scorers:
i)          The Assistant Scorer will maintain the record of the players who are out, in the order of their being put out & revived, of the team to which he is assigned.
ii)         He will also ensure that the players who are put out are seated in the order of their being put out in the sitting block.
iii)           The assistant scorer will point out to the Referee or the Umpires, if any player goes out of bounds
iv)          The Assistant scorer will record the bonus points and technical points scored by the opposite team in order to get the total number of points lost by the team to which he is assigned and also to tally with the main score sheet.

Tuesday, 14 February 2012

Techniques of Kabaddi

Kabaddi is the game of attack and defense. Attack is also known as 'raid' and the attacker is called the 'raider' in Kabaddi. The singularity of the game is that attack is an individual effort while defense is a combined effort. Offense in Kabaddi, is a sum total of raiding techniques and tactics in which footwork of the raider plays a crucial role. Since more points are scored through raids, the raider is in the limelight and the recipient of the public adulation or brickbats.
Raid is the focal point of Kabaddi. A couple of good raiders in the team can change the whole tempo of the game in minutes, with their techniques and tactics. For an individual raider to face up to seven opponents or antis, and come back successfully with points for the antis touched by him in the course of the raid, is no mean achievement. This is what the raid is all about. Raid is the main tool of the offense for scoring points against the opponent team. It is a continuous process since players from both teams raid on the opponent court alternatively. As per the rules of Kabaddi, the player who enters the opposite court with 'cant', all the while with-holding his breath, is known as the raider. 'Cant' is the continuous chanting of the approved word Kabaddi by the raider without taking a breath. The role of the raider, while in the opposite court, is to touch as many antis as possible, without being caught. Simply entering into the opponent's court with cant and returning to home court unscathed will not make the raid successful. To make the raid successful, the raider must enter the opponent's court with cant and either cross the baulk line or touch one or more antis and return safely with cant to his home court, without breach of rules.
Raid is the backbone of Kabaddi, and the raider plays a very important role in scoring points for the team. He is ca able of scoring a number of points in a single raid with his individual skill and enterprise, while the defense get only one point in the event of his being caught.

The main constituents of a raid comprises of the following :- 
  • Per-considerations
  • Cant
  • Entry
  • Settling
  • Path of attack
  • Footwork
  • Skills
  • Tactics
  • Retreat
Pre-considerations : 
Pre-considerations means planning the technique and strategy to be adopted by the raider before he enters into the opponent's court. This is to mentally prepare the raider to make his move depending on the number of defense players, their positions etc. The raider has to consider the following points before starting his raid.
·  Where to enter?
·  Number of players in the opponent's court and players put out
·  Strong defense positions and abilities there of
·  System of play adopted by the defense
·  Making a mental plan of the attack
·  Choosing the target
·  Situation of the game
·  Bonus line game

Entry into the opponent's court will affect the path of the raid, distance to be covered, and retreat to home court. As such, the raider must choose the right place to make an entry into the opponent's court. The defense players keep on varying in number during course of play. At any given moment, there may be any number of antis ranging from one to seven. The raider's attack should also vary depending upon the number of players in the opponent's court. While keeping in view the number of antis, the raider must also make a note of the antis out of court, since an ineffective, raid may bring in a strong anti and revive the defense. The raider must be aware of the abilities of the defense players as well as their positions, in order to either avoid their holds or counter act against their main skills.
The raider must observe the system of play adopted by the defense. In the chain system, there are various types of play depending upon the number of antis in the court. For exam le, with four antis in the court, the team may adopt 2-2, 1-2-1, or 1-1-2 system of play. The raider must try to discern the chain system and the strategy of the defenders before embarking on his raid. This is a vital pre-consideration before a raid.
Before starting on any venture, one has to preplan and condition one's mind to adopt a certain strategy. So also, the raider must make a mental plan of the raid before embarking on it. A raid without prior mental planning may prove dangerous and cost the offense side a point. The raider, while making. a mental plan of his strategy, must also choose his target and direct his attack towards this target.
The situation of the game relates to whether the offense side is leading or otherwise. The raider, keeping in view the situation, must decide whether he has to play safe or score pointed and the time to be spent. Some times a successful raid, i.e. crossing the baulk line will suffice, where as, if the situation is critical, the raider may have to go in for an attack in order to score points.
In the bonus line game, which is now in vogue, the raider must plan his raid keeping in view the number of antis in court on the opposite side. He can score a bonus point by crossing the bonus line, without a struggle if there are minimum six antis. If there are less than six antis, he has to go deeper into the defense stronghold and be prepared for a struggle to score points.

Cant :
One of the unique features of Kabaddi is the cant. The raider has to withhold his breath during the entire course of the raid and keep up a continuous and audible chant of the word Kabaddi until he returns to home court. This is known as cant in Kabaddi and if he happens to loose his cant during the raid or struggle before he reaches home court, he will be declared out and the offense side will loose a point. The definition of cant as coined by the Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India rules reads 'The repeated without break and at a stretch and clear utterance of the approved word "Kabaddi" with in the course of one respiration shall be called a cant'. In other words, cant can also be defined as the i-measurement of raid since the length of the raid can be determined on the duration of cant.
Raid begins with cant and ends with cant, immaterial as to whether the raider reaches home court. If raider stops cant in the opponent's court, he will be declared out, even if the antis do not catch him. As such, cant is the inseparable part of the raid and the raider must continue the audible utterance of the word Kabaddi in one breath until he returns to home court, for a successful raid. Together with physical prowess, & technical supremacy a raider has to maintain proper cant. Any break in cant, lack of clarity or chance of the approved word may prove detrimental to the raider.
Entry :
The entry of the raider in the opponent's court depends on three considerations, i.e.
·  The position of the raider when he is part of his team's defense system
·  The side from which he starts his attac k
·  The direction in which he moves.
The raider can take an entry from either the right zone, left zone or the center zone. Normally the raider playing fight comer position starts from the right zone, the left comer players star from the left zone and the center zone players start from the center zone, which ever is nearest to avoid delay. However, this is not compulsory. The raider can take an entry from any of the three zones but care should be taken to start the raid within 5 seconds after the opponent's raid, for any delay will render the raid unproductive. The raider must also take care to start cant before entering into the opposite court. If he touches the opposite court without cant, a late cant will be declared and the raid will be cancelled. At times raid takes the form of a pursuit to take the retreating raider of the opponents by surprise. Here the entry has to be very quick without breaking any rules of play.

Settling & Path of attack :
Settling means getting set before an attack. Normally, after entry into the opponent's court, the raider takes a few seconds to study the situation and decide upon the path of attack. In these few seconds, he chooses a target and makes his moves accordingly. If he does not get set but charges blindly into the opponent's court, there is more likelihood of his being caught. For example, in pursuit, when the raider charges without getting set, he exposes himself to the risk of being caught, since he does not take time to plan the path of attack or think of the consequence of his moves. The raider must take care not to go too deep into the opponent's court or be surrounded by the antis. He must also plan his path of retreat to home court. He must invariably select a path to the center line for retreat after attack, for which he may choose to turn, go outside, or take a side ward movement.

Footwork :
Footwork in Kabaddi means the movements made by the raider with his feet, during the course of the raid. The factors influencing footwork include the stance of the raider, body position, movement, speed, agility, etc. A raider has to move quickly from one spot to the other during raid, complete his task and reach home safe. For this he depends largely on footwork. Footwork can broadly be classified into four types, i.e. Leading Leg Raid, Shuffling Raid, Natural Method and Reverse Step Raid, which will be gone into in detail in the chapter on basic offense skills.

Skills :
Skill is the automatic application of technique without conscious thought. Skill can also be defined as the ability to co-ordinate different muscles in order to perform a combination of specific movements smoothly and effectively. Technique should be applied with dexterity, economy of movement and easily, without tension. Mastery over the techniques of the game is called skill. The skills used by the raider in Kabaddi are called- offensive skills, while the skills used by the antis are called defensive skills. During raid, the raider has to make maximum use of his limbs to come in contact or touch the opponents in order to score points. This is accomplished through leg touches such as toe touch, foot touch, squat leg, thrust, kicks etc, with lower limbs and through hand touches with upper limbs.
Apart from these basic skills, the raider must also learn advanced skills, such as counter action for escape from different holds. A skillful raider is one who has gained mastery over all these techniques.

Tactics :
Tactics means exploiting a given situation to one's advantage or creating a situation to suit one's purpose.
In Kabaddi, the raider is the principal performer who can change the tempo of the game. Depending on the game situation, the raider may increase or decrease the tempo of the game. In order to do this he may adopt a passive raid or an aggressive raid by creating a situation for a struggle. Some times the raider may pass time in the last few minutes of the game, especially when his team is leading and the opponents are playing an aggressive game. All these are the tactics adopted by the raider keeping in view the game situation. Tactics and techniques go hand in hand for any successful raid.

Retreat :
Unless the raider returns to home court, safely after. the raid, the raid cannot be treated as successful. This is called retreat. The raider has to pre-plan his path of retreat before starting his raid. While retreating to home court, the raider should keep the following points in view.
  • He does not give room for pursuit.
  • He regains his defensive position quickly before the opponent team's raider begins his raid. Unless he does this, he may disrupt his team's defense system. For example, when the raider assumes left comer positioning his team's defense, but enters from the right, the opponent's raid may begin before he reaches his defense position, putting the defense in jeopardy. To return to home court, the raider must pass through the mid line only

Forms of Kabaddi

Amar literally means invincible. This is a form of Kabaddi, which is played based on points scored by both sides. The play field has no specific measurements and nine to eleven players constitute each of the teams. In this form of Kabaddi, there is no 'out' and revival system or 'Iona' but time is the deciding factor. The main advantage of this form of the game is that tile players remain in the court through out the match and are able to give their best performance.

This form of Kabaddi is played with nine players on either side, in a play-field of no specific measurements. The principle characteristic of this form of Kabaddi is that a player who is put out has to remain out until all his team members are put out. The team that is successful in putting out all the players of the opponent's side secures a point. This is akin to the present system of 'Iona'. After all the players are put out, the team is revived and the game continues. The game continues until five or seven 'Iona' are secured. The game has no fixed time. The main disadvantage of this form of Kabaddi is that the player Is not in position to give his best performance since he is likely to remain out for the better part of the match until a Iona is scored.

This form of Kabaddi is the closest to the present game. In this form of Kabaddi, players are put out and revived and the game lasts for 40 minutes with a 5-minute break in between. The team consists of nine players on each side. The team that puts out all the players on the opponent's side scores four extra points for a 'Iona'.
The winning team is the one that scores the maximum number of points at the end of 40 minutes. The play field is bigger in this form of Kabaddi and the 'cant' was different in various regions. Modem Kabaddi resembles this form of Kabaddi a great deal especially with regard to 'out & revival system' and 'Iona'. The present form of Kabaddi is a synthesis of all these forms of Kabaddi with a good number of changes in the rules and regulations.

History and Development of Kabaddi

Modern Kabaddi is a synthesis of the game which is played in various forms under different names. Kabaddi received international exposure during the 1936 Berlin Olympics, demonstrated by Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravati, Maharashtra. The game was introduced in the Indian Olympic Games at Calcutta in 1938. In 1950 the All India Kabaddi Federation came into existence and compiled standard rules. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was founded in 1973. After formation of the Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, the first men's nationals were held in Madras (re-named Chennai), while the women's were in Calcutta (renamed Kolkata) in 1955.The AKFI has given new shape to the rules and has the right to modify them. The Asian Kabaddi Federation was founded under the chairmanship of Mr. Janardan Singh Gehlot.
The first men's kabaddi nationals championship on Mat and indoor Stadium were held in Pune and this championship Organized by Badami Haud Sangh in Pune. Kabaddi was introduced and popularized in Japan in 1979. The Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation sent Prof. Sundar Ram of India to tour Japan for two months to introduce the game.
In 1979, a return test between Bangladesh and India was held at different places of India including Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Punjab. The Asian Kabaddi Championship was arranged in 1980 and India emerged as champion and Bangladesh runner-up. Bangladesh became runner-up again in 1985 in the Asian Kabaddi Championship held in Jaipur, India. The other teams in the tournament were Nepal, Malaysia and Japan. The game was included for the first time in the Asian Games in Beijing in 1990. India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh took part. India won the gold medal and has also won gold at the following six Asian Games in Hiroshima in 1994, Bangkok in 1998, Busan in 2002, Doha in 2006 and Guangzhou in 2010. In the 1998 Asian games the Indian Kabaddi team defeated Pakistan in a thrilling final match at Bangkok (Thailand). The chief coach of the team was former kabaddi player and coach Flt. Lt. S P Singh.

Monday, 13 February 2012

About kabaddi

Kabaddi is one of the most popular games which are played in villages. In this game two teams occupy opposite halves of a field and take turns sending a raider into the other half, in order to win points by tackling members of the opposing team, the raider then tries to return to his own half, holding his breath and chanting the word Kabaddi during the whole raid. The raider must not cross the lobby unless he touches any of his opponents. If he does so then he will be declared as out.
In the international team version of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each occupy opposite halves of a field of 10 m × 13 m in case of men and 8 m × 12 m in case of women. Each has three supplementary players held in reserve. The game is of  two halves 20-minutes each and a five-minute halftime break during which the teams exchange sides.
Teams take turns sending a raider to the opposite team's half, where the goal of the raider is to touch the members of the opposite team before returning to the home half. The members which are touched by the raider are out and temporarily sent off the field.
The goal of the defenders is to stop the raider from returning to the home side before taking a breath.If any of the seven players cross the lobby without touching the raider he will be declared as out.
The raider is sent off the field if:
  • the raider takes a breath before returning
  • the raider crosses boundary line
  • a part of the raider's body touches the ground outside the boundary (except during a struggle with an opposing team member).
Each time when a player is out, the opposing team earns a point. A team scores a bonus of two points, called a lona, if the entire opposing team is declared out. At the end of the game, the team with the most points wins.
Matches are categorized based on age and weight. Six officials supervise a match: one referee, two umpires, a scorer and two assistant scorers.